Water covers two-thirds of the earth’s surface and makes up about 60% of adult bodies, including 75% of our brains.
Every day, it is recommended to consume more than two liters of drinking / purified water. And thanks to professionals who work in public health to ensure a safe supply of drinking water, we can all drink to meet these needs.
Although there are many sources of water on our planet, our water supply in terms of drinking water / clean water is not that easy to drink. (for example, frozen in glaciers or ocean water). Although it is fresh water, it may contain waterborne diseases and / or be contaminated water.
The science of water treatment and advanced water systems allow us to purify dirty water so that it is safe for our purposes. We conducted a water purification project to better understand our water sources, water purification systems, and water resources in general.
Build a water treatment system
What are you doing:
Pour the marsh water into the 2-liter bottle with a lid. Notice how it looks and smells.
Place the cap on the bottle and shake vigorously for 30 seconds. Then pour the water between the two cups about 10 times.
Pour the water into the bottle with the top cut off. Take another look at how the water looks and smells.
Add 2 tablespoons of alum to the water in the bottle with the top cut off. Use the spoon to slowly stir the water for five minutes. What do you notice about the water while you mix it?
Now let the water sit untouched for 20 minutes, checking it every five minutes to see how it looks and smells (without moving it).
Use a rubber band to attach the filter paper to the mouth of the bottle with the bottom cut off. Put it upside down in the glass.
Pour the stones into the bottle. Then pour the coarse sand over the pebbles and the fine sand over the coarse sand.
Carefully pour about two liters of clean tap water, being careful not to disturb the top layer of sand. Pour the rinsed water from the beaker.
Pour the top 2/3 of the swamp water through the filter, being careful to leave the sediment in the swamp water bottle.
Once all the water has passed through the filter, compare the swamp water to the filtered water. How do they look and smell different?
There are five steps to basic water purification: aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection.
Our project took us through the first four.
Aeration adds air to the water. It allows gases trapped in the water to escape and adds oxygen to the water.
Is coagulation the process that allows dirt and other suspended solid particles to “chemically bond”? scales (tufts of alum and sediment). During this stage, the water also becomes clear or clear and colorless.
Sedimentation is the process that occurs when gravity draws particles to the bottom of the container. Then, while the water remains intact, most of the floc settles, preparing the water for the next step.
Filtration is the process in which the remaining solid particles and the floc are separated and removed from the water.
Disinfection is the final step, where the water is chemically treated to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. These invisible bacteria can cause serious illness and even death in humans.
Since we have not disinfected our water, it is NOT safe to drink.